Twice-Exceptional Learners:
An Annotated Bibliography from 2009 – 2013

The following annotated bibliography was developed by Dede A. Addy and Hyeyoung Hwang of the FPG Child Development Institute, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Glen Ellyn Media thanks the Institute and Mary Ruth Coleman for making this resource available to 2e: Twice-Exceptional Newsletter.

To see an entry, select the article or book title from the following table; or click here to browse through the entire bibliography.

A Model for Screening Twice-Exceptional Students (Gifted with Learning Disabilities) Within a Response to Intervention Paradigm

Improving Outcomes for 2E Children

Academic and Affective Profiles of Low-Income, Minority, and Twice-Exceptional Gifted Learners: The Role of Gifted Program Membership in Enhancing Self

Learning Disabilities

Addressing the Needs of Students Who are Twice-exceptional

On the Diagnosis of Learning Disabilities in Gifted Students: Reply to Assouline et al

ADHD and Giftedness: A Neurocognitive Consideration of Twice Exceptionality

Opportunities for 2X Students to Shine in STEM

Advocating for Twice-Exceptional Students: An Ethical Obligation

Parent to Parent: Giftedness with a Twist

An Integrated Identification and Intervention Model for Intellectually Gifted Children

Predicting the Academic Achievement of Gifted Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Bright Not Broken: Gifted Kids, ADHD, and Autism

Research Sheds Light on 'Twice exceptional' Students

Bullying and the Twice-Exceptional Student

Response to Intervention and Twice-Exceptional Learners: A Promising Fit

Clinical Supervision Strategies for School Counselors Working with Twice-Exceptional Students

Response to Intervention: The Changing Role of School Psychologists in Relation to Gifted Students

Cognitive and Psychosocial Characteristics of Gifted Students with Written Language Disability

RtI and the Gifted Child: What Every Parent Should Know

Cognitive and Psychosocial Characteristics of Gifted Students with Written Language Disability: A Reply to Lovett's Response

Social and Self-Perceptions of Adolescents Identified as Gifted, Learning Disabled, and Twice-Exceptional

Creativity and Working Memory in Gifted Students With and Without Characteristics of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: Lifting the Mask

Stealth Schooler

Critical Differentiation and the Twice Oppressed Social Class and Giftedness

The Co-occurrence of Intellectual Giftedness and Autism Spectrum Disorders

Critical issues in the identification of gifted students with co-existing disabilities: The Twice-Exceptional

The Identification and Performance of Gifted Students with Learning Disability Diagnoses: A Quantitative Synthesis

Critical Readings on Diversity and Gifted Students

The Influence of Primary Caregivers in Fostering Success in Twice-Exceptional Children

Differences Between Children with Dyslexia Who Are and Are Not Gifted in Verbal Reasoning

The Right Fit for Henry

Differentiation and the Twice-Exceptional Student

The Two Edged-Sword of Compensation: How the Gifted Cope with Learning Disabilities

Do Foreign Language Learning, Cognitive, and Affective Variables Differ as a Function of Exceptionality Status and Gender?

Timelines for English Language Acquisition: A Study of the Rates of Second Language Acquisition Among Hispanic English Language Learners Including Exceptionalities

Education Outside of the Box: Homeschooling Your Gifted or Twice-Exceptional Child

Top 10 Instructional Strategies for Struggling Students

Empirical investigation of twice-exceptionality: Where have We Been and Where are We Going?

Twice exceptional: Multiple Pathways to Success

Everything I Ever Wanted to Learn About Teaching, I Learned from Gifted Boys

Twice-exceptional gifted children: Understanding, Teaching, and Counseling Students

Examining Parent and Teacher Perceptions of Behaviors Exhibited by Gifted Students Referred for ADHD Diagnosis Using the Conners 3 (An Exploratory Study)

Twice-exceptional Learners and RtI: Targeting Both Sides of the Same Coin

Exploring the Diagnosis of “gifted/LD”: Characterizing Post-Secondary Students with Learning Disability Diagnoses at Different Levels of IQ

Twice-exceptional Learners: Effects of Teacher Preparation and Disability Labels on Gifted Referrals

Future School Counselors' Perceptions of Twice-Exceptionality: An Exploratory Study

Twice-exceptional Learners: Who Needs to Know What?

Gifted Child Quarterly’s special issue on Twice-exceptionality – 2013

Twice-exceptional Learners’ Perspectives on Effective Learning Strategies

Homeschooling for Twice-Exceptional Students: When Public School Doesn't Work

Twice-exceptional Students Enrolled in Advanced Placement Classes

How Can Such a Smart Kid Not Get It? Finding the Right Fit for Twice-Exceptional Students in Our Schools

Twice-exceptional Students: Gifted Students with Learning Disabilities

I Am a Twice-Exceptional Student

Twice-exceptionality in the Classroom

Identification of Gifted Students with Learning Disabilities in a Response-To-Intervention Era

Twice-exceptionality: Implications for School Psychologists in the Post-IDEA 2004 Era

Identifying Twice‐Exceptional Children and Three Gifted Styles in the Japanese Primary Science Classroom

UB the Director: Utilizing Digital Book Trailers to Engage Gifted and Twice-Exceptional Students in Reading

Impact of IQ Discrepancy on Executive Function in High-Functioning Autism: Insight into Twice Exceptionality

Why isn't talent development on the IEP? SEM and the Twice Exceptional Learner





Adams, C.M., Yssel, N., & Anwiler, H. (2013).  Twice-exceptional learners and RtI: Targeting both sides of the same coin.  In M.R. Coleman & S.K. Johnsen (Eds.), Implementing RtI with gifted students: Service models, trends, and issues, (pp. 229-251).  Waco, TX: Prufrock. 

The authors of this book chapter consider how the Response to Intervention (RtI) model might affect twice-exceptional (2e) students. The chapter begins with a general introduction to twice-exceptional students, including general characteristics and identification. There is also consideration of the pros and cons of using the RtI model with 2e students, with a focus on identification and service. The chapter concludes with a few case study examples.

Berninger, V. W., & Abbott, R. D. (2013). Differences between children with dyslexia who are and are not gifted in verbal reasoning. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57(4), 223-233.

New findings are presented for children in Grades 1 to 9 who qualified their families for a multigenerational family genetics study of dyslexia (impaired word decoding/spelling) who had either superior verbal reasoning (n = 33 at or above 1 2/3 standard deviation, superior or better range; 19% of these children) or average verbal reasoning (n = 31 below population mean but above −2/3 standard deviation, average range; 18% of these children). Evidence-based rationale and results supporting the tested hypotheses are provided: (a) twice-exceptional students with superior verbal reasoning and dyslexia significantly outperformed those with average verbal reasoning and dyslexia on reading, spelling, morphological, and syntactic skills, (b) but not on verbal working memory behavioral markers of genetically based dyslexia related to impaired phonological and orthographic word-form storage and processing, naming orthographic symbols (phonological loop), writing orthographic symbols (orthographic loop), and supervisory attention (focus, switch, sustain, or monitor attention). Superior verbal reasoning may mask dyslexia if only very low achievement is used to identify this disorder of oral word reading and written spelling. Instruction for twice exceptional students who have dyslexia, but are also verbally gifted, should focus not only on oral word reading and written spelling but also on the impaired working memory components within intellectually engaging lesson sets. These findings for gifted students with dyslexia are situated within the broader context of the many kinds of twice exceptionalities related to specific learning disabilities that exist in school-age children and youth.

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Foley-Nicpon, M. (2013). Gifted Child Quarterly’s special issue on twice-exceptionality progress on the path of empirical understanding. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57(4), 207-208.

The short paper is an introduction about the special issue on twice-exceptionality, published from Gifted Child Quarterly, 2013. The researchers highlighted in this issue unveil groundbreaking findings in diverse areas within the broad definition of twice-exceptionality. Readers will learn more about screening, identification, characteristics, and successful intervention and support strategies.

Foley-Nicpon, M., Assouline, S.G., & Colangelo N. (2013).  Twice-exceptional learners: Who needs to know what? Gifted Child Quarterly, 57 (3), 169-180.

Twice-exceptionality is gaining increasing recognition in the gifted education literature but little is understood about the knowledge and awareness of this concept within the educational and psychological community, or about professionals' experience working with this population of learners. Three-hundred and seventeen individuals completed an online "Twice-Exceptional Needs Assessment", which consisted of 14 questions assessing issues pertaining to twice-exceptionality knowledge and experience, as well as knowledge of policies relevant to both gifted and special education. Results indicated that educators were more familiar with standards within their specific area of expertise (e.g., gifted or special education) and that fewer professionals were familiar with the use of Response to Intervention with twice-exceptional children. Gifted education professionals had significantly more knowledge and experience with twice-exceptionality than did professionals in other domains. We conclude with implications for educators and recommendations for expanding professional understanding of twice-exceptionality outside the field of gifted education to meet twice-exceptional students' multifaceted needs.

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Fugate, C. M., Zentall, S. S., & Gentry, M. (2013). Creativity and working memory in gifted students with and without characteristics of attention deficit hyperactive disorder lifting the mask. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57(4), 234-246.

There have been some behavioral indicators and some types of task performance that suggest greater creativity in students with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). This evidence would appear counterintuitive given that lower working memory (i.e., holding information in mind for novel recombinations) has often been documented in students with ADHD. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess working memory and creativity in two groups of gifted students (i.e., with characteristics of ADHD, n = 17, and without ADHD characteristics, n = 20), who were equivalent in fluid intelligence. Significant differences were found indicating that gifted students with ADHD characteristics had not only poorer working memory but also significantly greater creativity than those gifted students without these characteristics. These results were discussed in terms of creative potential, which could serve as an identifier and as a pathway to instruction. Foley-Nicpon, M. (2013). Gifted Child Quarterly’s special issue on twice-exceptionality progress on the path of empirical understanding. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57(4), 207-208.

The short paper is an introduction about the special issue on twice-exceptionality, published from Gifted Child Quarterly, 2013. The researchers highlighted in this issue unveil groundbreaking findings in diverse areas within the broad definition of twice-exceptionality. Readers will learn more about screening, identification, characteristics, and successful intervention and support strategies.

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Gilman, B. J., Lovecky, D. V., Kearney, K., Peters, D. B., Wasserman, J. D., Silverman, L. K., ... & Rimm, S. B. (2013). Critical issues in the identification of gifted students with co-existing disabilities the twice-exceptional. SAGE Open, 3(3), 2158244013505855.

Federal law ensures all students with disabilities the right to a Free, Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). However, current policies governing a student’s eligibility for services may contribute to the underidentification of gifted children with co-existing disabilities—the Twice-Exceptional. The emphasis on below-grade-level (or lower) performance, without regard to ability or potential weaknesses, misses twice-exceptional students. Those who perform at grade level, by using advanced conceptual abilities and hard work to compensate, may still require interventions and accommodations to manage increasing educational demands. Otherwise, college and even high school graduation may be out of reach. This article reviews changing laws and policies, explores case studies of twice-exceptional students missed, and examines the diagnosis of twice-exceptionality through comprehensive assessment. Appropriate best practices for the identification of twice-exceptional learners, maintenance of their civil rights, and provision of FAPE are offered for educators, parents, advocates, and legislators as federal, state, and district laws/policies evolve.

Kalbfleisch, M. L. (2013). Twice-exceptional students: Gifted students with learning disabilities. In C. M. Callahan & H. L. Hertberg-Davis (Eds.), Fundamentals of gifted education: Considering multiple perspectives (pp. 358-368). New York, NY: Routledge.

The current knowledge base in the area of twice exceptionality, particularly regarding those students with learning disabilities, includes both empirical research from the neurosciences and lessons from practice, where clinical and educational programs have sprouted to provide support and an organizational identity for twice exceptionality.  Twice exceptionality is not a diagnosis widely accepted and supported in mainstream education.  Notably, little epidemiological data exist to provide incidence or precedence for it, because it extends across several populations of disability and because no central definition exists for giftedness.  This chapter offers a general overview of twice exceptionality, with a brief discussion of the difficulties of definition and identification.  Twice exceptionality is also discussed in relation to other disorders, namely autism spectrum disorders, dyslexia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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Lovett, B. J., & Sparks, R. L. (2013). The identification and performance of gifted students with learning disability diagnoses: A quantitative synthesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46(4), 304-316.

Much has been written about gifted students with learning disabilities, but there have been few large-scale empirical investigations, and the concept has proven controversial. The authors reviewed the available empirical literature on these students, focusing on (a) the criteria by which the students were identified and (b) the students’ performance on standardized tests of ability and achievement. In addition, the test scores of these students were aggregated to determine typical performance levels. A total of 46 empirical articles were reviewed, and major findings included wide variability in identification criteria across studies, frequent reliance on dubious methods of learning disability identification, and a lack of academic impairment among the identified students. Implications for the “gifted/LD” category are discussed.

McCallum, R. S., Bell, S. M., Coles, J. T., Miller, K. C., Hopkins, M. B., & Hilton-Prillhart, A. (2013). A model for screening twice-exceptional students (gifted with learning disabilities) within a response to intervention paradigm. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57(4), 209-222.

The purpose of this article is to present a model for screening for twice-exceptional status (i.e., gifted students who have a learning disability). Curriculum-based measures (Monitoring Instructional Responsiveness: Reading and Monitoring Instructional Responsiveness: Math) were administered to 1,242 third-grade students within a Response to Intervention paradigm. When gifted status is tentatively defined as high performance (i.e., 84th percentile and higher) on a Monitoring Instructional Responsiveness reading probe, 5.48% of students exhibited deficits in (math) performance consistent with a significant discrepancy between reading and math (i.e., reading score – math score); 4.83% exhibited a discrepancy in reading (i.e., math score – reading). These values are based on observed scores using the following formula to define a discrepancy: 1.5(SD) × SEe. Only 2.1% exhibited a math discrepancy and 1.13% a reading discrepancy based on predicted scores, which takes regression to the mean into account. Using various cut score criteria, practitioners can select from less than 1% to about 10% for screening purposes. When using predicted (rather than observed) scores and more stringent cut score criteria, percentages decline, as expected. Recommendations for using this process for screening are provided, as are implications for best practice, particularly the impact of using more or less conservative criteria for screening twice exceptional students.

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Neumeister, K. S., Yssel, N., & Burney, V. H. (2013). The influence of primary caregivers in fostering success in twice-exceptional children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57(4), 263-274.

Using grounded theory, this study investigated primary caregivers’ perceptions of the role they play in influencing the academic success of students formally identified as twice-exceptional. Data from interviews were coded and analyzed for themes. Results indicated that primary caregivers (mothers) perceived that they played a major role in the academic success of their twice-exceptional children, first by recognizing their children’s gifts as well as disabilities and then by assuming responsibility for the development of their children’s potential. They sought professional evaluations, provided or secured educational supports, shaped their children’s healthy perceptions of their disabilities, and taught them how to advocate for themselves while simultaneously maintaining high expectations for their children, despite their disabilities. Implications of the findings are discussed, and areas for future research are outlined.

Willard-Holt, C., Weber, J., Morrison, K. L., & Horgan, J. (2013). Twice-exceptional learners’ perspectives on effective learning strategies. Gifted Child Quarterly, 57(4), 247-262.

This mixed-methods study investigates the perspectives of twice-exceptional students on learning strategies that have been recommended for them in the literature. Have the strategies recommended in the literature been implemented? Do students perceive the strategies to be beneficial in helping them learn? Participants represented a broad range of coexisting exceptionalities and ranged in age from 10 to 23 years. While mainly qualitative, this study was informed by a survey adapted from the Possibilities for Learning survey. Qualitative in-depth interviews provided rich descriptions of which learning strategies were facilitators and barriers. Findings indicated that participants perceived that their overall school experiences failed to assist them in learning to their potential, although they were able to use their strengths to circumvent their weaknesses. Implications for teachers included allowing twice-exceptional learners more ownership over their learning and more choice and flexibility in topic, method of learning, assessment, pace, and implementation of group collaboration.

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Assouline, S. G., Foley Nicpon, M., & Dockery, L. (2012). Predicting the academic achievement of gifted students with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(9), 1781-1789.

We are not well informed regarding the ability-achievement relationship for twice-exceptional individuals (very high cognitive ability and a diagnosed disability, e.g., autism spectrum disorder [ASD]). The research question for this investigation (N = 59) focused on the predictability of achievement among variables related to ability and education in a twice-exceptional sample of students (cognitive ability of 120 [91st percentile], or above, and diagnosed with ASD). We determined that WISC-IV Working Memory and Processing Speed Indices were both significantly positively correlated with achievement in math, reading, and written language. WISC Perceptual Reasoning Index was uniquely predictive of Oral Language test scores. Unexpected findings were that ASD diagnosis, Verbal Comprehension Index, and forms of academic acceleration were not related to the dependent variables.

Bell, S., & McCallum, R. (2012). Do foreign language learning, cognitive, and affective variables differ as a function of exceptionality status and gender? International Education, 42(1), 86-106.

Relationships between foreign language learning and four characteristics- anxiety, aptitude, attitudes and attributions for success-were investigated for 95 students enrolled in introductory level Spanish classes at a large, southeastern university in the United States. Examination grades resulted in significantly positive correlation with an aptitude measure and significantly negative correlation with luck attributions for foreign language success (p < .05). Students identified as gifted tended to score higher than those with learning disabilities on exams, though not significantly higher, perhaps as a result of the small sample size and highly variable performance of the gifted students (p < .05). In addition, the gifted students reported less anxiety (p < .04). Females reported higher anxiety (p < .001) than males though they earned (non-significantly) higher scores (than males) on exams (p > .05). Modern Language Aptitude Test Part IV and luck attributions significantly predicted exam grades within a multiple regression analysis. In a second multiple regression analysis, only effort and ability attributions significantly predicted anxiety. Results underscore the importance of understanding and addressing both cognitive and affective variables in learning a new language.

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Budding, D., & Chidekel, D. (2012). ADHD and giftedness: A neurocognitive consideration of twice exceptionality. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 1(2), 145-151.

Current models of cognition and behavioral diagnosis emphasize categorical classification over continuous considerations of function and promote the “differential diagnosis” of various conditions according to observational criteria. However, an overemphasis on a purely behavioral, categorical approach to understanding human function fails to address the comorbidity of different disorders and does not include a consideration of overlapping levels of function, from “pathological” through “normal,” to “gifted” or exceptional. The frequent co-occurrence of “gifted” and “pathological” function is thus difficult to understand from a corticocentric and purely behavioral and observational point of view. This article reviews “giftedness” in relation to the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, coexistence of which is termed “twice exceptional.” It additionally considers problems in assessing these functions using current neuropsychological tests and methodologies that are presumably based upon a corticocentric model of cognition.

Carr, J., & Bertrando, S. (2012). Top 10 instructional strategies for struggling students. Leadership, 42(1), 24-26.

The article offers the author's insights on the 10 instructional strategies that teachers, and school leaders can use to improve the learning process for struggling students, and school culture. The authors says that teachers must leverage instructional strategies for different type of students which include gifted students, English learners, and with disabilities. It also mentions several strategies including a framework for a lesson plan, scaffolding tools, and response to intervention (RTI).

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Chivers, S. (2012). Twice-exceptionality in the classroom. Journal of Student Engagement: Education Matters, 2(1), 26-29.

Who are twice-exceptional students, what are their needs and how does a teacher best facilitate their learning in the primary classroom? The purpose of this paper is to identify issues surrounding twice-exceptionality and explore how classroom teachers can overcome some of these educational issues. Three foci are addressed: teacher attitudes toward twice-exceptional students, issues surrounding misdiagnosis and the importance of curriculum differentiation for learners. Teachers need a comprehensive understanding of the condition, equipped with a positive attitude and ample curriculum differentiation options tailored to individual strengths and weaknesses. Quality support for students in their primary years will result in individual success in future schooling and work life. With enough attention, adequate support and an education tailored to their needs, they can not only succeed, but excel in life.

Collins, A. E. (2012). I am a twice-exceptional student. Education Week, 31(26), 26-27.

The article is written to reflect upon the author’s experience as a "twice exceptional" student in the public school system. “Twice-exceptional students all over the country are facing the same sort of challenges that I faced during the last several years of my life. Because of how damaging my own experience has been, I feel the need to raise awareness of our unique situations.”

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Cooper, M. E. (2012). Everything I ever wanted to learn about teaching, I learned from gifted boys. Gifted Child Today, 35(3), 171-178.

The purpose of this article is to explore four experiences that the author has encountered in her teaching career and focus on how they have shaped her understanding of gifted males and the instructional strategies that she uses in her classroom. The situations described in the article focus on four distinct subgroups of gifted males, James and Michael, the students who lack confidence and express self-doubt; John, the twice-exceptional student; Jorge, the culturally diverse student; and David, the underachiever. All of the situations are based on personal reflections from the author's 10 years of teaching secondary science.

Cross, T. L., Coleman, L. J., & Cross, J. (2012). Critical Readings on Diversity and Gifted Students. Volume 2. Prufrock Press Inc.

The field associated with educating students with gifts and talents has grappled for years with issues associated with locating and appropriately serving diverse students. As our schools have become more diverse, educators have struggled to effectively deal with the diversity of student backgrounds. Consequently, diversity among the gifted child population has been determined to be a much-needed area of research. "Critical Readings on Diversity and Gifted Students" is a two-volume compilation of 66 articles that originally appeared in the "Journal for the Education of the Gifted." Volume 2 features 19 articles focused on the impact of gender on gifted students and gifted students with one or more disabilities. This volume shares articles on gifted females, gifted males, gender differences, savants, and twice-exceptional students, including gifted students with learning disabilities and ADHD.

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Dixon, J. J. (2012, January 1). Timelines for English language acquisition: A study of the rates of second language acquisition among Hispanic English language learners including exceptionalities. Dissertation: Oregon State University. ProQuest LLC: UMI Dissertations Publishing.

This study explores No Child Left Behind's required timetable for English language learners (ELLs) to reach English language proficiency within five years, as outlined in the Annual Measurable Achievement Outcomes (AMAOs), despite the lack of research evidence to support this as a reasonable expectation. Analysis was conducted on the archived data from 1311 current and former Spanish-speaking ELLs, including students who qualify for Special Education (SpEd) and Talented and Gifted (TAG) programs. One-way chi-square analysis, contingency table analysis, relative frequency histograms, z-tests and t-tests were used to test hypotheses regarding statistically significant differences in TAG and SpEd identification rates and differences in acquisition timelines based on TAG or SpED classification, as well as instructional program model (bilingual versus English immersion). Results determined that Spanish-speaking ELLs were underidentified for TAG programs, despite extensive bilingual resources and staffing. Results further determine that ELLs as a whole require a mean 7.13 years to reach proficiency. Average ELLs without exceptionalities require 7.354 compared with 8.933 years for ELLs with disabilities (ELL-Ds), while TAG ELLs require 5.423 years, all longer than allowed by NCLB (five years) to reach proficiency. Significant differences were found in acquisition rates among TAG ELLs, ELL-Ds and average ELLs without exceptionalities. Analysis of timelines for ELLs in bilingual versus English immersion programs for ELLs as a whole, average ELLs and ELL-Ds with specific learning disabilities also found statistically significant differences, favoring bilingual programs. Overall, the results speak to the effectiveness of bilingual education program models for helping students to reach English proficiency and also to the need for consideration of additional factors in assessing schools based on AMAOs with five-year targets for language acquisition.

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Franklin-Rohr, C. (2012). Bullying and the twice-exceptional Student. Understanding Our Gifted, 24(3), 19-20.

Bullying has been an ongoing problem for students, but the issue is becoming more critical with changes in the society and the school systems. A bully is no longer "a person who hurts, frightens, threatens, or tyrannizes over those who are smaller or weaker". According to Tracy Cross, the definition of a bully now is evolving to include any person who limits another person's behavior. This limitation can be caused by physical bullying or emotional intimidation and generally includes a power inequality. With this new definition, the author realizes that twice-exceptional learners are limited by so many individuals in their educational system, and some may not have the appropriate communication skills to address these bullies. As a result, these twice-exceptional students are at a greater risk of experiencing the negative impacts of bullying. In order to help twice-exceptional students, the author suggests that teachers need to be proactive in their classrooms to establish positive learning environments. They need to be vigilant in the halls and classrooms and attend to the behaviors that contribute to bullying. Parents also need to let their children know that they support them first by acknowledging their feelings and then by brainstorming strategies to deal with the issue with their child.

Franklin-Rohr, C. (2012). Differentiation and the twice-exceptional student. Understanding Our Gifted, 24(2), 25-27.

Tier 1, the first level of instruction in the RtI (Response to Intervention) framework, is designed to meet the needs of 80% of students within the regular classroom. The only way to accomplish this goal is to use differentiation. Differentiation is not a singular process; it is rather a complicated process of adapting instructional strategies so that "all" students can be successful. Differentiation requires that teachers adjust their content (what they teach), process (activities that help students understand the content), product (how the students demonstrate their acquisition of the knowledge) and the learning environment according to students' readiness (where they are in the continuum of learning), learning styles (how the students learn best), or interests. With the continued focus of Common Core Standards, adjusting the content may be difficult for a teacher to accomplish. Therefore, teachers may want to concentrate their efforts in differentiation in the process, product, learning styles and learning environment. For twice-exceptional students, teachers need to get to know their students from multiple perspectives. They need to use their pre-assessment data to identify areas in the curriculum where students may be above grade level as well as to identify areas where students may have holes in skill sets. They can also get to know their students better by using information from Multiple Intelligence assessments, learning styles and interest inventories, or surveys on other factors that impact student learning. Many teachers give pre-assessments, learning style or multiple intelligence surveys, and interest inventories, but few of them adjust their instruction based on this information. In this article, the author discusses how this should work for "all" students, including twice-exceptional students. Differentiation might be difficult for teachers to learn how to do, but it is a required skill for teachers to use effectively if they want their students to show growth in their learning. Once a teacher learns how to differentiate, it becomes the only way to plan instruction.

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Franklin-Rohr, C. (2012). Homeschooling for twice-exceptional students: When public school doesn't work. Understanding Our Gifted, 24(4), 17-18.

As a teacher in a public school system, the author had a different perspective on the need to home school the twice-exceptional learner. She thought that schools could provide differentiation for all students and she thought that certified teachers were the only adults who should be providing instruction. Yet, she realized that there are times when schools are not the best place to teach twice-exceptional students. After researching several home-schooling options, she has also come to awareness that there is a continuum of services that are available, and the school districts can help out with providing several options. When parents make the decision that their twice-exceptional child needs an alternative environment, there are many resources and options available.

Franklin-Rohr, C. (2012). Opportunities for 2X Students to Shine in STEM. Understanding Our Gifted, 25(1), 31-32.

Twice-exceptional students can shine in the STEM fields because Science, Technology, Engineering and Math use higher levels of thinking skills like application, synthesis, creativity and evaluation. In this article, the author discusses what parents and teachers can do to open the STEM doors for twice-exceptional learners.

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Goldsmith, S. K. (2012). Clinical supervision strategies for school counselors working with twice-exceptional students. Georgia School Counselors Association Journal, 19(1), 133-144.

Clinical supervision is a way for counselors in training to develop needed skills (Bernard & Goodyear, 1998). Best practices indicate that counselors trained in the application of supervision theory should provide clinical supervision. However, many school counselors receive administrative supervision by non-counseling professionals who may overlook the school counselors' clinical development. In addition, there is limited research on school counselors' clinical or administration supervision with special population such as twice-exceptional learners. This article reviews current literature on school counselors' clinical and administrative supervision practices with the twice-exceptional population, in consideration of the American School Counseling Association (ASCA) National Model. Implication for counselors, suggestions for future research, and strategies to increase this type of supervision will also be discussed.

Goodwin, C., & Gustavson, M. (2012). Education outside of the box: Homeschooling your gifted or twice-exceptional child. Understanding Our Gifted, 24(4), 8-11.

Gifted children are children first, and they have educational and social-emotional needs that run all over the map. Anyone who knows gifted children is familiar with the sudden shifts within a child who might be doing high school level scientific study, handwriting at a third grade level, display the wit and wisdom of a middle aged adult, and throw tantrums like a small child. Put two of these children together and they might create a world-changing invention while arguing over hurt feelings and chocolate chip cookies. Even more crazy-making is that each gifted child is asynchronous in their own way, and some may be what they call "twice exceptional" (2e)--gifted and also having learning differences or other emotional or mental health disorders. Because the needs of gifted children can vary so widely within the population, finding a comfortable place for them to grow and thrive both educationally and socially can be especially challenging. For children with greater asynchronies, this challenge becomes commensurately more difficult. For parents seeking an option with the flexibility to tailor an education to the child's needs, homeschooling usually works quite well. Until the past decade or so, homeschooling has been considered a "fringe" approach to education. In this article, the authors discuss the benefits of homeschooling to the gifted or twice-exceptional child and the parents.

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Gould, J., Staff, L. K., & Theiss, H. M. (2012). The right fit for Henry. Educational Leadership, 69(5), 71-73.

When Henry was enrolled in a gifted program in 3rd grade, he showed many of the classic signs of giftedness, but his reading and writing skills were below grade level. An evaluation revealed that he was twice-exceptional--he was gifted and he had a learning disability. Believing that both his giftedness and his learning disability warranted attention, his teacher worked with the school's special educator to provide remediation and accommodations that enabled Henry to remain in the gifted program while building his reading and writing skills.

Gunter, G. A., & Kenny, R. F. (2012). UB the director: Utilizing digital book trailers to engage gifted and twice-exceptional students in reading. Gifted Education International, 28(2), 146-160.

Attempts to increase motivation in reluctant readers have been the focus of many local, state and federal reading research initiatives. Only recently have researchers and educators come to understand that many of these same issues also face teachers of gifted and talented learners. Frequently, students who are bright and talented but do not perform to their academic ability are categorized as being underachievers or unmotivated. In this article, the authors explore some reasons why gifted students struggle with reading and why they, like those in regular classrooms, are reluctant to read and write. This study uses a computerized version of the Matching Familiar Figures Test as an identifier and predictor of student performance. An instructional intervention (UB the Director Model) is also utilized to determine if these instructional practices help to overcome these students' reluctance and lack of motivation.

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Kalbfleisch, M. L., & Loughan, A. R. (2012). Impact of IQ discrepancy on executive function in high-functioning autism: Insight into Twice Exceptionality. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(3), 390-400.

We examined the impact of IQ discrepancy (IQD) within (1) and above (1+) one standard deviation on executive function in HFA using the BRIEF. We hypothesized that IQD would benefit executive function. IQD 1 is hallmarked by deficits in BRIEF indices and subscales inhibit, shift, initiate, working memory, planning and organization, and monitor (MANCOVA, p < .003, corrected). As IQD increases to 1+, deficits are fewer, corresponding to subscales inhibit, shift, and initiate. Pearson correlations (p < .004, corrected) identify significant relationships for FSIQ and BRIEF Global Composite (r = −.66, p = .002) and Metacognition subscales plan/organize (r = −.64, p = .003) and monitor (r = −.63, p = .004). Results suggest IQD 1+ favoring verbal IQ may support these aspects of executive function in HFA.

McGee, C. D. (2012). Parent to parent: Giftedness with a twist. Parenting For High Potential, 1(5), 12-13.

Discovering that a child is gifted can be both exhilarating and daunting. Parents watch in amazement and awe as their 3-year-old reads a first-grade-level book flawlessly, or they might listen to their preschool child's distress over seeing a homeless person on the street. Parents observe as their 6-year-old dismantles a broken CD player and returns it to working order, or they realize that their child's artistic talents are far above those of their peers. Parents of gifted children remember with fondness the times when their child has astonished them with an unusual talent or gift. However, most parents do not bask in the glow of their children's successes long before they realize that with this amazing gift also comes the challenge of supporting it. Initially, the wonder can be overcome by the challenge of assuring that the child reaches his or her full potential. In this article, the author takes this discovery of an unusual talent or gift and gives it the added twist of a learning disability--referred to as twice-exceptionality (2E)--by sharing the story of her 2E son's difficulties at school. There was no support system for parents of children who were twice-exceptional 30 years ago. Today, the story is much different. National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC) has a plethora of information for parents of 2E children, and there are many other websites dealing with 2E. The author urges parents to explore these resources and become knowledgeable about their 2E child's needs.

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Merrill, J. (2012). Stealth Schooler. Understanding Our Gifted, 24(4), 15-16.

The author is the proud parent of The Most Complex Child on the Planet[TM]. This has been confirmed by numerous teachers, administrators, doctors, therapists, specialists, friends, family members, and random strangers on the street. She has accepted her son's complexity (mostly) and is trying to work with it instead of against it. Now she is homeschooling. Gifted kids are a challenge, but twice-exceptional kids with the widely varying challenges they present are something else entirely. Because of her son's complexity, homeschooling is not as cut and dried as it could be. In this article, the author shares how she became a StealthSchooler who likes the ninja of the homeschooling world.

Schultz, S. M. (2012). Twice-exceptional students enrolled in advanced placement classes. Gifted Child Quarterly, 56(3), 119-133.

Twice-exceptional students, those who have disabilities and display areas of gifts or talents, frequently spend their high school years with a focus on their disabilities. Using semistructured interviews, this study explores the perceptions of parents, teachers, and guidance counselors regarding participation of twice-exceptional students in Advanced Placement (AP) and for-college-credit classes. The supports and barriers for students with disabilities participating in AP and for-college-credit classes were identified. Additionally, participants included six college students who had taken AP and/or for-college-credit classes while still in high school. The results of this study indicated that school culture and early placement decisions affect enrollment in AP and for-college-credit classes for the twice-exceptional student. Inconsistencies between students' goals and transition planning and inconsistent implementation of test and environmental accommodations were documented.

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Sittiprapaporn, W. (2012). Learning Disabilities. InTech.

Learning disability is a classification that includes several disorders in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner. Depending on the type and severity of the disability, interventions may be used to help the individual learn strategies that will foster future success. Some interventions can be quite simplistic, while others are intricate and complex. This book deserves a wide audience; it will be beneficial not only for teachers and parents struggling with attachment or behavior issues, but it will also benefit health care professionals and therapists working directly with special needs such as sensory integration dysfunction.

Contents include: (1) Language Disabilities: Myths and Misconceptions vs. Reality (George S. Mouzakitis); (2) Achievement Gaps: Learning Disabilities, Community Capital, and School Composition (Bob Algozzine, Erik Porfeli, Chuang Wang, Ann McColl and Robert Audette); (3) Dyslexia in Hong Kong: Challenges and Opportunities (Chi-man Tsui, Cecilia W. P. Li-Tsang and Pui Yee Grace Lung); (4) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Writing Learning Disabilities (Celestino Rodriguez, Paloma Gonzalez-Castro, Rebeca Cerezo and David Alvarez); (5) Reading and Writing Achievement Tests for Assessing Orthographical and Phonological Impairments of Japanese Children with Developmental Disorders (Kiyomi Yatabe, Takaaki Goto, Katsumi Watanabe, Makiko Kaga and Masumi Inagaki); (6) Interventions in Specific Learning Disabilities Through Families (Patricia Robledo-Ramon and Jesus-Nicasio Garcia-Sanchez); (7) Preventing Children's Writing Difficulties Through Specific Intervention in the Home (Patricia Robledo-Ramon and Jesus-Nicasio Garcia-Sanchez); (8) The Family Environment of Students with Learning Disabilities and ADHD (Patricia Robledo-Ramon and Jesus-Nicasio Garcia-Sanchez); (9) Meeting the Needs of Twice-Exceptional Children in the Science Classroom (Manabu Sumida); (10) The Quality of Teaching Determines Students' Achiee in Writing (Deilis Ivonne Pacheco Sanz and Jesus-Nicasio Garcia-Sanchez); (11) Diagnosis of Teachers' Practice in the Teaching of Written Composition (Deilis Ivonne Pacheco Sanz and Jesus-Nicasio Garcia-Sanchez); (12) Motor Skill Performance of Children with Sensor Impairments (Danijela Ilic-Stosovic and Snezana Nikolic); (13) Could Motor Development Be an Emergent Property of Vestibular Stimulation and Primary Reflex Inhibition? A Tentative Approach to Sensorimotor Therapy (Mats Niklasson); (14) Contributions of an Augmented Reality Musical System for the Stimulation of Motor Skills in Music Therapy Sessions (Ana Grasielle Dionisio Cor Irene Karaguilla Ficheman, Marilena do Nascimento and Roseli de Deus Lopes); (15) Deafness-Specific Tactic Knowledge: A New Understanding of Mental Health, and Social and Professional Participation (Paul G. Jacobs); (16) Environmental Chemical Substances in Relation to Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Systematic Literature Review (Hideko Sone, Tin-Tin Win-Shwe, Xian-Yang Qin, Hiromi Akanuma and Satoshi Imanishi); and (17) Disability and Oral Health (Jenny Gallagher and Sasha Scambler).

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Sparks, S. D. (2012). Research sheds light on 'Twice exceptional' students. Education week. 31(30). 14.

The article discusses twice exceptional elementary school students who are both learning disabled and gifted, and the use of response-to-intervention models to diagnose disabilities. The effect of the timing of the evaluation on students' verbal IQ, as well as the results of a study of adults with dyslexia, are also discussed.

Trail, B. A. (2012). Improving outcomes for 2E children. Parenting For High Potential, 1(5), 8-10.

The term "twice-exceptional (2E)" is representative of a diverse group of individuals who have a wide range of gifts, talents, and accompanying disabilities. These children have the characteristics of gifted students along with the characteristics of children with disabilities. The gifted characteristics can mask the disability, or the disability can mask the gifted potential. Dealing with both exceptionalities can be extremely frustrating for gifted students with disabilities. Many 2E children are reluctant to ask for help. In fact, they try desperately to hide the fact they are struggling in an effort to protect their gifted identity. Each year it becomes more difficult for them to compensate for their disability. 2E children can experience years of frustration before their educational needs are addressed and optimal times for intervention are therefore missed. Parents may first realize there is a problem when they notice increasing levels of anxiety and frustration in their child, but are not sure of the exact nature of that problem. To the parents' dismay, their child's giftedness seems to disappear, and the disability becomes more and more noticeable. A's are replaced by F's and parents have to face the reality that their gifted child with so much potential is not interested in applying for college, and his or her progress in high school is compromised. This article presents five strategies that are intended to decrease risk, increase resiliency, and improve outcomes for 2E students.

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Wellisch, M., & Brown, J. (2012). An integrated identification and intervention model for intellectually gifted children. Journal of Advanced Academics, 23(2), 145-167.

Gifted children who do not achieve often have problems with motivation and socioemotional adjustment and may also have learning disabilities. This article examines factors such as attachment difficulties and maternal depression as these may contribute to underachievement. The article reviews past and current practices of gifted identification and argues that schools have an important role in the early identification of socioemotional problems and learning difficulties, as these can create barriers to learning and achievement. Although Gagné did include underachievers in his Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent, he has also argued that only achieving children should be included in academic talent development programs, and he supports a separate pathway for gifted underachievers. This article demonstrates that such a pathway can be achieved through an inclusive model for gifted achievers and underachievers. A model involves the early triaging of children through identification of giftedness, socioemotional problems, and learning difficulties.

Wood, S. C. (2012). Examining Parent and Teacher Perceptions of Behaviors Exhibited by Gifted Students Referred for ADHD Diagnosis Using the Conners 3 (An Exploratory Study). Roeper Review, 34(3), 194-204.

This exploratory study considered the perceptions of parents and teachers regarding behaviors exhibited by gifted students who may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by examining their responses to the Conners 3 behavior rating scale. Statistical analysis revealed average scores in the ratings of parents and teachers in the areas of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, executive functioning, and learning problems. Parent and teacher ratings of these students were not significantly correlated nor were there significant differences between parents and teachers on ratings of students. The need for further examination of the psychometric properties and appropriate use of the Conners 3 in diagnosis of twice-exceptional students, the need for normative data on gifted populations for the Conners 3, and a greater understanding of the differential display of ADHD in the gifted population were suggested.

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Assouline, S. G., Nicpon, M., & Whiteman, C S. (2011). Cognitive and psychosocial characteristics of gifted students with written language disability: A reply to Lovett's response. Gifted Child Quarterly, 55(2), 152-157.

Our article describing the characteristics of gifted students with a specific learning disability (SLD) in written language was criticized for emphasizing an ability achievement discrepancy as an indication of a written language disability and for not ruling out alternative explanations for the observed difficulties. The three primary alternative explanations include measurement error, (lack of) motivation, and/or past experiences. In our reply, we offer extensive evidence that refutes these alternative explanations. The critique also offers an interpretation, which we determined to be inaccurate, of our data; therefore, we correct the misinterpretation. We conclude with a confirmation of our original findings: identification of gifted students with specific learning disabilities requires a comprehensive psycho-educational evaluation that includes an examination of the cognitive profile generated from individually-administered tests of ability and achievement. In combination with a psychosocial profile that addresses behavior, self-concept, interests, and motivation, educators have the necessary information to guide them in identifying and developing the unique talents of gifted children with SLD.

Assouline, S. G., & Whiteman, C.S. (2011). Twice-exceptionality: Implications for school psychologists in the Post-IDEA 2004 era. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 27(4), 380-402.

Increased awareness of twice-exceptional students is important for all educators and psychologists; however, for school psychologists, improved understanding of twice-exceptionality will enhance their unique role in assessing twice-exceptional students and in recommending appropriate interventions in schools. In this article, the authors address giftedness and disability as separate topics and then connect them as they relate to twice-exceptionality. The authors explore twice-exceptionality in 3 separate case studies, with a specific focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and specific learning disability. The article includes a discussion of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act 2004, specifically as it relates to specific learning disability and giftedness. The authors conclude with 10 recommended practices that include the importance of a comprehensive evaluation to understand a student's strengths and weaknesses as well as the critical nature of differential diagnosis as a foundation for making recommendations for intervention.

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Barber, C., & Mueller, C. T. (2011). Social and self-perceptions of adolescents identified as gifted, learning disabled, and twice-exceptional. Roeper Review, 33(2), 109-120.

The purpose of this study is to examine the social and self-perceptions of twice-exceptional "students", those students who meet criteria for being identified as both gifted and learning disabled. In particular, we focus on how twice-exceptional students are similar to, or different from, students with only a learning disability or who are only identified as gifted. Using data collected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we identified a group of 90 twice-exceptional adolescents as well as three matched comparison groups. Overall, twice-exceptional adolescents had less positive perceptions of maternal relationships and self-concept than did gifted or nonidentified adolescents. Further, perceptions of maternal relationships mediated and moderated group differences in self-concept. Implications for adults working with twice-exceptional adolescents are discussed.

Burger-Veltmeijer, A. E., Minnaert, A. E., & Van Houten-Van den Bosch, E. J. (2011). The co-occurrence of intellectual giftedness and Autism Spectrum Disorders. Educational Research Review, 6(1), 67-88.

This systematic literature review explored the state of the art concerning the theoretical and empirical knowledge of the twice-exceptionality of Intellectual Giftedness and Autism Spectrum Disorders (IG + ASD), in relation to diagnostic and assessment issues. After searching and examining publications in peer-reviewed journals and dissertations, we encountered a variety of methodologies being used. The results showed the absence, until now, of theoretical conceptualisations of the phenomenon IG + ASD. Nevertheless, this contribution revealed some converging tendencies concerning both personal characteristics and diagnostic and assessment issues, between publications with and without Systematic Identification Measures (SIM). Some findings, like the ‘superior non-verbal abilities’, are discussed in relation to (controversial) image formation of IG and IG + ASD. Altogether, the results indicated the need for an in-depth exploration and conceptualisation of the phenomenon IG + ASD. Meanwhile, future research should also address the practical psychological-educational need for both classification-based and needs-based assessment procedures, regarding students with (suspicion of) IG + ASD.

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Crepeau-Hobson, F., & Bianco, M. (2011). Identification of gifted students with learning disabilities in a response-to-intervention era. Psychology in the Schools, 48(2), 102-109.

The identification of children who are twice-exceptional--those who are gifted and have concomitant learning disabilities (LDs)--has historically posed a number of challenges for school psychologists and other school personnel. With the reauthorization of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act and the shift to the use of a Response-to-Intervention (RtI) model to identify students with LDs, the task of identifying those who are twice exceptional is even more daunting. This article proposes an integrated model for the identification of gifted children with LDs that blends standardized assessment methods with practices consistent with RtI. This balanced approach brings together the best of both worlds to more accurately identify twice-exceptional students and better meet their educational needs.

Latz, A. O., & Adams, C. M. (2011). Critical differentiation and the twice oppressed social class and giftedness. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 34(5), 773-789.

Within disciplines, certain theoretical, ontological, and heuristic frameworks evolve toward axiomatic status over time. This evolution can limit disciplinary growth. Interdisciplinary theorizing can introduce trouble into such frameworks and add the tension necessary for the creation of new knowledge. This theoretical essay provides educators with new ways of thinking about teaching disadvantaged gifted youth. Differentiation, an educational philosophy, is reconceptualized as a form of critical pedagogy termed "critical differentiation." The concept of the "twice oppressed" is presented. This concept suggests that it is possible for children to be oppressed based on social category as well as gifted classification. As in the case of the twice exceptional child who may struggle in classrooms with both dyslexia and giftedness, the twice oppressed child may struggle with both poverty and giftedness. Critical differentiation, or a merger of critical pedagogy and differentiation, may become a step toward resolving this conundrum. The concept of critical differentiation is explicated in this essay, along with sample lesson ideas and suggestions for framing research endeavors.

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Leggett, D., Shea, I., & Leggett, J. (2011). Future school counselors' perceptions of twice-exceptionality: An exploratory study. Research in the Schools, 18(1), 1-11.

An exploratory survey was given to school counselors-in-training to gather preliminary information about their perceptions regarding students with twice-exceptionalities, their professional roles concerning service provision, and the roles of other helpers in assisting twice-exceptional students in the school setting. Thirty-seven participants responded to the survey consisting of 18 first-year and 19 second-year graduate students. Results provide descriptive information from the future school counselors about their perceptions of twice-exceptionality and current understanding of how to serve these students best. Participants deemed vocational/career planning as their most important role rather than advocacy. This initial survey is presented with the intention of stimulating discussion among counselors and educators regarding the practicalities involved in meeting the ethical mandates to serve twice-exceptional students successfully.

Lovett, B. J. (2011). On the diagnosis of learning disabilities in gifted students: Reply to Assouline et al.(2010). Gifted Child Quarterly, 55(2), 149-151.

Gifted students often fail to achieve at a superior level in one or more academic areas. In this reply to an article by Assouline, Nicpon, and Whiteman, the author reviews various explanations for this phenomenon, including motivation/interest, learning opportunities, and error in measuring students’ ability–achievement discrepancies. The author also describes different methodologies for investigating whether learning disabilities are over identified among gifted students and, more broadly, considers the appropriateness of a learning disability diagnosis in students with average achievement. The author concludes with thoughts on the proper interpretation of Assouline et al.’s results.

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Kennedy, D. M., Banks, R. S., & Grandin, T. (2011). Bright Not Broken: Gifted Kids, ADHD, and Autism. Jossey-Bass, An Imprint of Wiley.

The future of our society depends on our gifted children--the population in which we'll find our next Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, or Virginia Woolf. Yet the gifts and talents of some of our most brilliant kids may never be recognized because these children fall into a group known as twice exceptional, or "2e." Twice exceptional kids are both gifted and diagnosed with a disability--often ADHD or an Autism Spectrum Disorder--leading teachers and parents to overlook the child's talents and focus solely on his weaknesses. Too often, these children get lost in an endless cycle of chasing diagnostic labels and are never given the tools to fully realize their own potential. Bright Not Broken sheds new light on this vibrant population by identifying who twice exceptional children are and taking an unflinching look at why they're stuck. The first work to boldly examine the widespread misdiagnosis and controversies that arise from our current diagnostic system, it serves as a wake-up call for parents and professionals to question why our mental health and education systems are failing our brightest children. Most importantly, the authors show what we can do to help 2e children, providing a whole child model for parents and educators to strengthen and develop a child's innate gifts while also intervening to support the deficits. Drawing on painstaking research and personal experience, Bright Not Broken offers groundbreaking insight and practical strategies to those seeking to help 2e kids achieve their full potential.

King, E. W., Coleman, M. R., & Miller, A. (2011). Response to intervention: The changing role of school psychologists in relation to gifted students. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 27(4), 341-358.

Response to intervention is a school reform movement embracing the academic and behavioral needs of all students, including those with gifts and talents. With the implementation of response to intervention in schools across the country, education is in the midst of a significant systems change that is affecting the roles of the school psychologist. In this article, the authors (a) describe the changing roles of the school psychologist in relation to gifted education and response to intervention; (b) examine a specific issue (students who are twice-exceptional) where these role changes can be clearly illustrated; (c) share remaining opportunities and challenges in implementing response to intervention to address the strengths and needs of all children; and (d) review the process in Colorado for exploring and redefining these roles.

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Nicpon, M. F., Allmon, A., Sieck, B., & Stinson, R. D. (2011). Empirical investigation of twice-exceptionality: Where have we been and where are we going?. Gifted Child Quarterly, 55(1), 3-17.

Gifted students with coexisting disabilities, also known as twice-exceptional, are increasingly recognized in America's schools. This increasing awareness needs to be met with equal enthusiasm for empirical investigation into the identification and treatment needs of this group of students. In this article, a 20-year review of the empirical literature examining twice-exceptionality, specifically gifted students with learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or autism spectrum disorder, was conducted. Research strongly suggests that gifted students can have a coexisting disability and that comprehensive, individualized approaches toward diagnosis are necessary. Less is known about effective treatments and interventions that simultaneously highlight strengths and accommodate for areas of growth. Future research directions are offered that ideally will encourage scholars to discover more about effective diagnostic and intervention techniques for this very important group of gifted learners.

Pereles, D., Baldwin, L., & Omdal, S. (2011). Addressing the needs of students who are twice-exceptional. In M. R. Coleman & S. K. Johnsen (Eds.), RtI for gifted students (pp. 63-86). Waco, TX: Prufrock.

RtI (Response to Intervention) approaches are changing the ways that students are identified and served.  These changes offer us an opportunity to improve practices for students who are twice exceptional.  Core principals of RtI include: all children can learn; early intervention is essential; tiered supports target intervention to levels of need; data informs decision making; collaboration is key; and family involvement is central to success.  The collaborative problem-solving approach offers a unique way to explore the strengths and needs of the child with 2e and to determine appropriate supports.  A case study shares how the RtI approach can work for students who are 2e.

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Postma, M., Peters, D., Gilman, B., & Kearney, K. (2011). RtI and the gifted child: What every parent should know. Parenting For High Potential, 16-23.

Education has seen its share of trends and movements that either help or hinder the optimal development of the gifted child. In 2001, Congress passed No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in a concerted effort to reach children who were not meeting minimal standardized goals of achievement. Response to Intervention (RtI) is yet another approach to ensure services for children who demonstrate special needs in the classroom. Neither NCLB nor RtI were designed with gifted children in mind. However, NCLB had sweeping ramifications for how money was spent in schools, and RtI may govern how gifted children--with and without accompanying disabilities--are identified and served. RtI is a regular education initiative, designed to provide additional learning support within all classrooms for students who fail to respond appropriately to regular instruction. Given the right adaptations for gifted children and appropriate teacher training, the RtI model has potential to fill the vacuum and increase appropriate differentiation for all children. However, emerging RtI programs raise concerns about the methodology employed in identifying and serving both gifted and twice-exceptional students. With RtI approaches as yet untested for the gifted, parents of gifted students need to monitor their children's progress with a clear understanding of how RtI typically works. Under RtI, teachers or teams--with or without special education professionals--identify a child's needs through ongoing classroom assessment and apply additional tiers of intervention as needed. In this article, the authors discuss RtI and how the gifted child, with or without disabilities, is likely to be affected.

Trail, B.A. (2011).  Twice-exceptional gifted children: Understanding, teaching, and counseling students. Waco, TX: Prufrock.

Based on the latest research, this book offers a comprehensive guide to understanding twice-exceptional students, or gifted students with disabilities.  There are many complex issues associated with twice-exceptional children and the information provided in this book will be useful for teachers, administrators, special education specialists, and parents of these students.  In addition to discussing these students’ academic strengths and needs, the author also considers inter- and intra-personal issues and provides a number of strategies that will help twice-exceptional learners to be successful students.

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Assouline, S. G., Nicpon, M. F., & Whiteman, C. (2010). Cognitive and psychosocial characteristics of gifted students with written language disability. Gifted Child Quarterly, 54(2), 102-115.

Gifted and talented students who also have a specific learning disability (SLD) are typically referred to as twice-exceptional and are among the most underserved students in our schools. Previous special education laws promoted a wait-to-fail approach; therefore, gifted students with SLD often were overlooked because their average academic performance was not “failure” enough. The flip side to this was the fact that students’ giftedness, as measured by general ability tests, often was masked by average, yet relatively weak, academic achievement. They were not only waiting to fail, they were failing to flourish. The authors present the data gathered from 14 gifted students with SLD, specifically a disorder of written expression. Students were determined to be gifted if they earned a score of 120 (Superior) on the Verbal Scale of a cognitive ability test. They were considered to have a written language disability through an evaluation of their written language skills. The average Verbal IQ for the group was close to a standard score of 130, whereas the average Written Language Score was close to a standard score of 99. In addition to the cognitive profile for these students, the authors obtained measures of their psychosocial functioning. On average, parents, teachers, and students reported typical adaptive behavior, yet group elevations also were present on several clinical scales. The authors’ main conclusion is that a comprehensive assessment plays a critical role in (a) determining whether a student is twice-exceptional, (b) identifying the possibility of psychosocial concerns, and (c) developing educational recommendations.

Baum, S., & Novak, C. (2010). Why isn't talent development on the IEP? SEM and the twice exceptional learner. Gifted Education International, 26, 249-260.

Why isn't talent development included on the Individual Educational Plan of 2E students? Twice exceptional students have unique issues that respond especially well to a talent development approach especially within the context of the Schoolwide Enrichment Model Through case studies and a review of successful projects using SEM with at risk populations, this article provides a rationale for using a talent development approach. The article concludes with an in-depth look at a school designed for 2E learners showing how the elements of the Model are helping this special population of students to thrive.

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Bianco, M., & Leech, N. L. (2010). Twice-exceptional learners: Effects of teacher preparation and disability labels on gifted referrals. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 33(4), 319-334.

The goal of this mixed methods study was to explore differences among teachers (n = 52 special education teachers, n = 195 general education teachers, and n = 30 gifted education teachers) on their perceptions of students with disabilities and their willingness to refer them to a gifted and talented program. In this follow-up to an earlier work, data reveal that teachers’ decisions for referral are significantly influenced by their teaching credentials and by the presence or absence of a disability label. When compared to teachers of gifted students and general education teachers, special education teachers are least likely to refer students to a gifted program, with disabilities and without. Results further indicate that all teachers are much less willing to refer students with disability labels to gifted programs than identically described students with no disability labels.
Leggett, D. G., Shea, I., & Wilson, J. A. (2010). Advocating for twice-exceptional students: An ethical obligation. Research in the Schools, 17(2), 1-10.

In this article, the authors present a call to advocacy for an underserved population. Twice-exceptional students are an important sub-population that has historically been neglected. We examine the historical context of twice-exceptionality and evaluate the relevance of current ethical codes with regard to these students. We also review some of the specific needs and challenges faced by these students as well as current efforts to meet those needs. The needs of these students and the ability of school counselors to work with students, teachers, and educational, professional, and legal systems to meet these needs imbue educators with an ethical obligation to help these students fulfill their potential. Recent calls to action are echoed and elaborated.

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Leggett, D. G., Shea, I., & Wilson, J. A. (2010). Advocating for twice-exceptional students: An ethical obligation. Research in the Schools, 17(2), 1-10.

In this article, the authors present a call to advocacy for an underserved population. Twice-exceptional students are an important sub-population that has historically been neglected. We examine the historical context of twice-exceptionality and evaluate the relevance of current ethical codes with regard to these students. We also review some of the specific needs and challenges faced by these students as well as current efforts to meet those needs. The needs of these students and the ability of school counselors to work with students, teachers, and educational, professional, and legal systems to meet these needs imbue educators with an ethical obligation to help these students fulfill their potential. Recent calls to action are echoed and elaborated.

Lovett, B. J., & Sparks, R. L. (2010). Exploring the diagnosis of “gifted/LD”: Characterizing post-secondary students with learning disability diagnoses at different levels of IQ. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28, 91-101.

Increasing numbers of students are being diagnosed as simultaneously gifted and having a learning disability, although the identification procedures and characteristics of these students are matters of continuing debate. In the present study, postsecondary students with learning disability diagnoses (N = 357) were grouped according to their IQ scores, and the groups’ cognitive and achievement characteristics were explored, with special attention to the proportions of each group that would meet various objective criteria for learning disability diagnosis. Many students in each group failed to meet any of the criteria, although higher IQ students were more likely to meet most of the criteria. In addition, the higher IQ group exhibited higher achievement scores than did the lower IQ group, although the achievement gaps were much smaller than the IQ differences. Implications for the validity of the gifted/LD category as well as future research directions are discussed.

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Sumida, M. (2010). Identifying twice‐exceptional children and three gifted styles in the Japanese primary science classroom. International Journal of Science Education, 32(15), 2097-2111.

A study explored ways to identify gifted characteristics specific to science learning among twice-exceptional primary school children in Japan. An original checklist of 60 items on attitudes, thinking skills, and knowledge/understanding was developed. A target group of 86 children from eight primary schools in urban Japan, of whom 50 percent had learning disabilities (LD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or high-functioning autism (HA) were observed using this checklist. An analysis of the findings with the subscale points of each factor identified three gifted styles in science: spontaneous style, expert style, and solid style. LD/ADHD/HA children were characterized by the simultaneous style, while non-LD/ADHD/HA children were characterized by the solid style. In both the groups, expert style children were the least common, with no difference in numbers.

Yssel, N., Prater, M., & Smith, D. (2010). How can such a smart kid not get it? Finding the right fit for twice-exceptional students in our Schools. Gifted Child Today, 33(1), 54-61.

The purpose of this article is to present parents' perceptions of educational and social-emotional difficulties their twice-exceptional children experience. The snapshots of twice-exceptional middle school students are interspersed with views and research findings from existing literature. Finally, a few successful strategies are described, and recommendations for the classroom are included.

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Lupart, J. L., & Toy, R. E. (2009). Twice exceptional: Multiple pathways to success. In International Handbook on Giftedness (pp. 507-525). Springer Netherlands.

This chapter addresses the interplay of exceptionality relating to students who are gifted and talented as well as disabled (twice-exceptional). Following a brief introduction, information relevant to primary twice-exceptional subgroups including gifted students with learning disability, intellectual disability and/or autism, Asperger’s Syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and sensory impairment is presented. Key areas relating to meeting the full range of needs for students who are twice exceptional in the school including identification, curriculum and instruction, and teacher preparation are discussed. The chapter concludes that even though our knowledge base and classroom practices regarding the twice-exceptional remain a “desultory duality” the future holds greatest promise for these students in inclusive schools.

Silverman, L. K. (2009). The two edged-sword of compensation: How the gifted cope with learning disabilities. GiftedEducation International, 25, 115-130.

Not everyone understands what it means to be twice exceptional. How can you be both ‘learning abled’ and ‘learning disabled’? This doesn't compute. There are two basic misunderstandings here: that the learning disabled aren't smart and that giftedness means high achievement. If someone thinks learning disabled means ‘dumb’ and that the gifted are ‘smart,’ you can't be smart and dumb at the same time However, federal and state definitions of learning disabilities specifically limit the term, ‘learning disabled,’ to children of at least average intelligence. So you have to be smart to be learning disabled! Definitions and district identification procedures that focus on achievement make it nearly impossible to recognize and include twice exceptional (2e) children.  Here is another way to look at giftedness. No two gifted people are alike. In fact, gifted people differ from each other to a greater extent than other groups. Imagine a scatter plot with thousands of dots representing the IQ scores of thousands of people. If you drew a line around the dots, it would form a normal curve. Where is the greatest density of the dots? Where are the fewest dots? The further the child is from the norm, the more unique the child. Thus, no two gifted children are alike. And if you add the co-occurrence of different types of disabilities, no two 2e children are alike. Each child who comes to the Gifted Development Center for assessment is a new puzzle. Our testers have to re-invent the wheel for each child. This paper analyses some of the underlying causes of ‘twice exceptionality.’

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Pereles, D., Omdal, S., & Baldwin, L. (2009). Response to intervention and twice-exceptional learners: A promising fit. Gifted Child Today, 32, 40-51.

In this article, we will discuss why we feel that the RtI model that includes a problem-solving/consultation process is a promising fit for the twice-exceptional student. We will describe the theoretical and practical implications for these special students and then take the reader through each element of the problem-solving/consultation process by discussing a case study of a gifted student who has both learning and behavioral challenges.

VanTassel-Baska, J., Feng, A. X., Swanson, J. D., Quek, C., & Chandler, K. (2009). Academic and affective profiles of low-income, minority, and twice-exceptional gifted learners: The role of gifted program membership in enhancing self. Journal of Advanced Academics, 20(4), 702-739.

This study examined the academic and affective profiles of gifted students who were classified under the five prototypes of low-income White students, low-income African American students, low-income other minority students, high nonverbal and low verbal students, and twice-exceptional students. A total of 37 vignettes were developed and analyzed based on interviews with selected students, their teachers, and parents. Within and cross-prototype themes were derived. Both cognitive and affective impacts were found, suggesting the power of gifted program membership on enhancing self-confidence and building higher level skills of communication and thinking. All groups interviewed appeared to think that the gifted program had been good for the students in the study, providing challenge at the cognitive level and self-confidence at the affective level. Differences that emerged through the analysis of stakeholder perspectives suggested that students were the least aware of learning problems, but more aware than their parents or teachers of the affective and social issues affecting them. Parents seemed most attuned to their child's heightened self-esteem as a result of identification and program participation. Teachers seemed very aware of learning problems displayed by the child, typically related to perceived motivation, organization, and social skills.

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